Associated Research  
   and Commentary
Lightning Phenomena, Sprites, Blue Jets and Elves:
Sprites, Blue Jets, and Elves: Optical Evidence of EnergyTransport Across the

Matthew J Heavner, Davis D. Sentman, Dana R. Moudry, and Eugene M. Wescott
- Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks - Carl L. Siefring and Jeff
S. Morrill- Naval Research Laboratory - Eric J. Bucsela- Raytheon ITSS

(You may have to cut and paste this URL into the Address line of your browser)

Study explains the mystery of ball lightning

"Led by CSIRO scientist John Lowke, the new theory focuses on how ball
lightning occurs in houses and aeroplanes – and how it can pass through glass.
His theory also proposes that ball lightning is caused when leftover ions (electric
energy), which are very dense, are swept to the ground following a lightning

Plasma Cosmology and Extreme Ball Lightning
Wallace Thornhill,

"Dr. VanDevender does not consider ball lightning as "just entertainment." He has
launched into what he calls "High Risk Research at the Boundary of Denial and
Superstition." His interest focuses on "Extreme Ball Lightning." The term
"extreme" distinguishes it from ordinary ball lightning, which lasts less than 10
seconds and is benign. ..."

Ball lightning may sometimes be explained as hallucinations
( -- An Australian scientist studying photographs of fireballs, UFO
sightings and a report of a strange green light in the sky suggests some UFOs
may be ball lightning caused by fireball meteors.

Atmospheric Phenomena: Unknown

Earthlights, Anomalous Light Phenomena, etc....

Hessdalen, Norway - Erling Strand and Massimo Teodorani

For continuing information on the research that is taking place at Hessdalen, Norway.

Anomalous Light Phenomena

The joint Norwegian and Italian team undertaking research into Earthlights and related phenomena.

Atmospheric Physics

Probable Role of Plasma Instabilities in Anomalous High Altitude Luminosity
(AHAL) Observed in Meteors and SpaceVehicle Re-entries
By Andrei Yu. Olkhovatov

Aviation: Avionics Systems

TCAS Development and the Federal Role-Part 1

TCAS Development and the Federal Role-Part 2

Operation of TCASII in Level-Bust Encounters

John Law, ACAS Programme Manager, EuroControl
8/9 October 2002

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS II)

Australian Civil Aviation Authority, 2002

Potential Co-operations Between TCAS and the ASAS

An Abeloos, Max Mulder, Rene van Paassen, Deft University, Netherlands
Eric Hoffman, EuroControl Experimental Center

Aviation: Cockpit Resource Management

CAP720 - Flight Crew Training: Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) and
Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT)

(previously ICAO Digest 2) Civil Aviation Authority of the United Kingdom, Safety
Regulation Group:

The Evolution of Crew Resource Management Training in Commercial

by Robert L. Helmriech, Ashliegh C. Merrit, and John A. Wilhelm, Department of
Psychology, Aerospace Crew Research Project, University of Texas at Austin

Aviation: Electromagnetic Interference

A Study of Occurrence Rates of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) to Aircraft With
a Focus on HIRF (External) High Intensity Radiated Fields
by Martin L. Shooman, Polytechnic University, Farmingdale, New York dates April
1994 (Grant NAG1-1272). NASA Contractor Report

An Investigation of EME as a Potential Cause of Fuel Tank Ignition

Jay J. Ely, Truong X Nguyen, Kenneth L. Dudley, Stephen A. Scearce, Fred Beck,
Monohar D. Dashpande and C. R. Cockrell; NASA Langley Research Center,
Hampton, Virginia

Investigation of Mechanisms of Potential Aircraft Fuel Tank Vent Fires and
Explosions Caused by Atmospheric Electricity
by M e l v i n  G e r s t e i n

Electronic Systems Failures and Anomalies Attributed to Electromagnetic

R.D. Leach and M.B. Alexander, Editor, NASA Reference Publication 1374

Disruptive Effects of Electromagnetic Interference on Communication and
Electronic Systems

James Burrel, School of Information Technology and Engineering, George Mason

The Interaction of Lightning with Airborne Vehicles

M.A. Uman, V.A. Rakov, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
University of Florida, Gainseville, FL 32611, USA as it appeared in: Progress in
Aerospace Sciences 39 (2003) 61-81

Protection of Aircraft Fuel Systems Against Fuel Vapor Ignition Due to Lightning

Lightning Task Group of EEHWG, 22July 1995

Electromagnetic Interference with Aircraft Systems: why worry?

Peter B. Ladkin with colleagues, 11 July 1997, modified 20 October 1997

ASRS Database Report Set: Passenger Electronic Devices
A sampling of reports to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) referencing
incidents involving passenger electronic devices.

Aviation: Human Factors

Analysis of Mid-Air Collisions in Civil Aviation

Narinder Taneja and Douglas A. Wiegmann University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign, Aviation Human Factors Division Savoy, Illinois

Human Factors in Fatal Aircraft Accidents

Department of Transport and Regional Development, Bureau of Air Safety
Investigation, April 1996

Loss of Separation - Risk Assessment

IBC "Aviation Safety Management" London 20-21 May 1999
Edward Smith, Robin Pitbaldo (DNV), Roland Rawlings, Mike Perry (EuroControl)

Human Factors Analysis and Classification Sytem(HFACS) A Human Error
Approach to Accident Investigation

Shappel and Weigmann

Aviation: Visual Illusions

The Eye and Night Vision

(This article has been adapted from the excellent USAF Special Report, AL-SR-
1992-0002, "Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon", written by Robert E.
Miller II, Col, USAF, (RET) and Thomas J. Tredici, Col, USAF, (RET)) and
appears on the website of the American Optometric Association: http://www.

Perceptual Disorders

United States Naval Flight Surgeon's Manual: Third Edition 1991: Chapter 9: Ophthalmology, Naval
Aerospace Medical Institute
Fair Use: Many of the documents offered on the NARCAP website are either copied and
posted to the NARCAP website or remotely linked to NARCAP webpages. In many cases
this has been done without the direct permission of the author(s). We choose
documentation that is consistent with our mission and with the intent of educating the public
about our concerns. NARCAP feels that this represents a fair use of the materials as
posted on the internet. Should any author desire to have materials representing their work
removed from the NARCAP website, they are encouraged to contact us through this site
Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Air Defence Region (declassified
report and study by the UK Ministry of Defence)
UK Ministry of Defense, 2006
During a policy review in 1996 into the handling of Unidentified Aerial
Phenomena sighting reports received by the Ministry of Defence, a study
was undertaken to determine the potential value, if any, of such reports to
Defence Intelligence. Consistent with Ministry of Defence policy, the
available data was studied principally to ascertain whether there is any
evidence of a threat to the UK, and secondly, should the opportunity arise,
to identify any potential military technologies of interest.

This is a comprehensive document reviewing many aspects of the UAP
matter from the UK Gov perspective. While the conclusions are startling, the
document states quite matter-of-factly "That UAP exist is indisputable.... and
probably represent a threat to safe aviation...".  The document is less clear
regarding the cause and mechanism behind UAP manifestations, offering
that these UAP are likely "plasmas" without any substantial science to
support those conclusions.  The simple fact is that UAP are unidentified
phenomena that remain unidentified after examination by those most
qualified to provide an explanation.
UAP Studies and Commentary
Inflation Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation

Deardorff, Haisch, Maccabee and Puthoff,  2005
It has recently been argued that anthropic reasoning applied to inflation
theory reinforces the prediction that we should find ourselves part of a
large, galaxy-sized civilisation, thus strengthening Fermi’s paradox
concerning “Where are they?” Furthermore, superstring and M-brane theory
allow for the possibility of parallel universes, some of which in principle
could be habitable. In addition, discussion of such exotic transport concepts
as “traversable wormholes” now appears in the rigorous physics literature.
As a result, the “We are alone” solution to Fermi’s paradox, based on the
constraints of earlier 20th century viewpoints, appears today to be
inconsistent with new developments in our best current physics and
astrophysics theories. Therefore we reexamine and reevaluate the present
assumption that extraterrestrials or their probes are not in the vicinity of
Earth, and argue instead that some evidence of their presence might be
found in certain high-quality UFO reports. This study follows up on previous
arguments that (1) interstellar travel for advanced civilizations is not a priori
ruled out by physical principles and therefore may be practicable, and (2)
such advanced civilisations may value the search for knowledge from
uncontaminated species more than direct, interspecies communication,
thereby accounting for apparent covertness regarding their presence.
Why Some Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers Don't See UAP.
NARCAP National Technical Specialist, Jim McClenahen, a retired air traffic
control specialist, offers an air traffic controller's perspective on a UAP report.
Leslie Kean, 2002
The COMETA Report Part 1

The COMETA Report is a unique document prepared by a group of current and
former French military officers, government officials and defense specialists to
address the issue of unidentified aerial phenomena including UFO.

While NARCAP refers the reader to the authors with respect to the overall motives
and conclusions of the report, this document is particularly relevent to the
NARCAP mission with respect to the emphasis on aviation reports involving
aviation related encounters with unidentified phenomena. The reader is
encouraged to pay particular attention to the aviation related data and statistics,
much of it compiled through the efforts of  NARCAP Advisor Dominique Weinstein
and CNES-SEPRA Director JJ Valesco.
Science in Default: Twenty Two Years of Inadequate UFO Investigations
James E. McDonald, Ph.D. Professor of Atmospheric Science, University of
Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, 134th meeting of The American Society for the
December 1969
Why Don't Pilots See UFOs?
Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, presented to the House Subcommittee on Science and
Aeronautics, 1968 Symposium on UFOs.
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Statement on UFOs

AIAA UFO Subcommittee, Astronautics and Aeronautics, December
1968, p. 12
Incommensurability, Orthodoxy and the Physics of High Strangeness: A 6-
layer Model for Anomalous Phenomena
The main argument presented in this paper is that the continuing study of models
of physical reality. The current SETI paradigm and its “assumption of mediocrity”
place restrictions on forms of non-human intelligence that may be researched. A
similar bias exists in the ufologists’ often-stated hypothesis that UAP, if real, must
represent space visitors.
Observing that both models are biased by anthropomorphism, the authors attempt
clarify the issues surrounding “high strangeness” observations by distinguishing
six layers of information that can be derived from UAP events, namely (1) physical
manifestations, (2) anti-physical effects, (3) psychological factors, (4)
physiological factors, (5) psychic effects and (6) cultural effects. In a further step
they propose a framework for scientific analysis of unidentified aerial phenomena
that takes into account the incommensurability problem.