Associated Research and Articles
Lightning Phenomena, Sprites, Blue Jets and Elves:
Sprites, Blue Jets, and Elves: Optical Evidence of
Energy Transport Across the Stratopauseuse

Matthew J Heavner, Davis D. Sentman, Dana R. Moudry, and Eugene M. Wescott - Geophysical
Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks - Carl L. Siefring and Jeff S. Morrill- Naval Research
Laboratory - Eric J. Bucsela- Raytheon ITSS

(You may have to cut and paste this URL into the Address line of your browser)

Study explains the mystery of ball lightning

"Led by CSIRO scientist John Lowke, the new theory focuses on how ball lightning occurs in
houses and aeroplanes – and how it can pass through glass. His theory also proposes that ball
lightning is caused when leftover ions (electric energy), which are very dense, are swept to the
ground following a lightning strike."

Plasma Cosmology and Extreme Ball Lightning
Wallace Thornhill,

"Dr. VanDevender does not consider ball lightning as "just entertainment." He has launched into
what he calls "High Risk Research at the Boundary of Denial and Superstition." His interest focuses
on "Extreme Ball Lightning." The term "extreme" distinguishes it from ordinary ball lightning, which
lasts less than 10 seconds and is benign. ..."

Ball lightning may sometimes be explained as hallucinations
( -- An Australian scientist studying photographs of fireballs, UFO sightings and a
report of a strange green light in the sky suggests some UFOs may be ball lightning caused by
fireball meteors.

Atmospheric Phenomena: Unknown

Earthlights, Anomalous Light Phenomena, etc....

Hessdalen, Norway - Erling Strand and Massimo Teodorani

For continuing information on the research that is taking place at Hessdalen, Norway.

Anomalous Light Phenomena

The joint Norwegian and Italian team undertaking research into Earthlights and related phenomena.

Atmospheric Physics

Probable Role of Plasma Instabilities in Anomalous High Altitude Luminosity (AHAL)
Observed in Meteors and SpaceVehicle Re-entries
By Andrei Yu. Olkhovatov

Aviation: Avionics Systems

TCAS Development and the Federal Role-Part 1

TCAS Development and the Federal Role-Part 2

Operation of TCASII in Level-Bust Encounters

John Law, ACAS Programme Manager, EuroControl
8/9 October 2002

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS II)

Australian Civil Aviation Authority, 2002

Potential Co-operations Between TCAS and the ASAS

An Abeloos, Max Mulder, Rene van Paassen, Deft University, Netherlands
Eric Hoffman, EuroControl Experimental Center

Aviation: Cockpit Resource Management (CRM)

CAP720 - Flight Crew Training: Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) and Line Oriented
Flight Training (LOFT)

(previously ICAO Digest 2) Civil Aviation Authority of the United Kingdom, Safety Regulation

The Evolution of Crew Resource Management Training in Commercial Aviation

by Robert L. Helmriech, Ashliegh C. Merrit, and John A. Wilhelm, Department of Psychology,
Aerospace Crew Research Project, University of Texas at Austin

Aviation: Electromagnetic Interference

A Study of Occurrence Rates of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) to Aircraft With a Focus on HIRF
(External) High Intensity Radiated Fields
by Martin L. Shooman, Polytechnic University, Farmingdale, New York dates April 1994 (Grant
NAG1-1272). NASA Contractor Report

An Investigation of EME as a Potential Cause of Fuel Tank Ignition

Jay J. Ely, Truong X Nguyen, Kenneth L. Dudley, Stephen A. Scearce, Fred Beck, Monohar D.
Dashpande and C. R. Cockrell; NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia

Investigation of Mechanisms of Potential Aircraft Fuel Tank Vent Fires and Explosions
Caused by Atmospheric Electricity
by M e l v i n  G e r s t e i n

Electronic Systems Failures and Anomalies Attributed to Electromagnetic Interference

R.D. Leach and M.B. Alexander, Editor, NASA Reference Publication 1374

Disruptive Effects of Electromagnetic Interference on Communication and Electronic

James Burrel, School of Information Technology and Engineering, George Mason University,

The Interaction of Lightning with Airborne Vehicles

M.A. Uman, V.A. Rakov, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida,
Gainseville, FL 32611, USA as it appeared in: Progress in Aerospace Sciences 39 (2003) 61-81

Protection of Aircraft Fuel Systems Against Fuel Vapor Ignition Due to Lightning

Lightning Task Group of EEHWG, 22July 1995

Electromagnetic Interference with Aircraft Systems: why worry?

Peter B. Ladkin with colleagues, 11 July 1997, modified 20 October 1997

ASRS Database Report Set: Passenger Electronic Devices
A sampling of reports to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) referencing incidents
involving passenger electronic devices.

Aviation: Human Factors

Analysis of Mid-Air Collisions in Civil Aviation

Narinder Taneja and Douglas A. Wiegmann University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Aviation
Human Factors Division Savoy, Illinois

Human Factors in Fatal Aircraft Accidents

Department of Transport and Regional Development, Bureau of Air Safety Investigation, April 1996

Loss of Separation - Risk Assessment

IBC "Aviation Safety Management" London 20-21 May 1999
Edward Smith, Robin Pitbaldo (DNV), Roland Rawlings, Mike Perry (EuroControl)

Human Factors Analysis and Classification Sytem(HFACS) A Human Error Approach to
Accident Investigation

Shappel and Weigmann

Aviation: Visual Illusions

The Eye and Night Vision

(This article has been adapted from the excellent USAF Special Report, AL-SR-1992-0002, "Night
Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon", written by Robert E. Miller II, Col, USAF, (RET) and Thomas
J. Tredici, Col, USAF, (RET)) and appears on the website of the American Optometric Association:

Perceptual Disorders

United States Naval Flight Surgeon's Manual: Third Edition 1991: Chapter 9: Ophthalmology, Naval Aerospace Medical Institute
Fair Use: Many of the documents offered on the NARCAP website are either copied and posted to the
NARCAP website or remotely linked to NARCAP webpages. In many cases they are posted without the
authors permission and are considered to be supportive of the information being offered on this website. If
any author does not approve of this use of their materials they are encouraged to contact us through this
website and we will remove their materials.
Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Air Defence Region (UKMOD)
During a policy review in 1996 into the handling of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena sighting reports received by the Ministry
of Defence, a study was undertaken to determine the potential value, if any, of such reports to Defence Intelligence.
Consistent with Ministry of Defence policy, the available data was studied principally to ascertain whether there is any
evidence of a threat to the UK, and secondly, should the opportunity arise, to identify any potential military technologies of

This is a comprehensive document reviewing many aspects of the UAP matter from the UK Gov perspective. While the
conclusions are startling, the document states quite matter-of-factly "That UAP exist is indisputable.... and probably
represent a threat to safe aviation...".  The document is less clear regarding the cause and mechanism behind UAP
manifestations, offering that these UAP are likely "plasmas" without any substantial science to support those conclusions.  
The simple fact is that UAP are unidentified phenomena that remain unidentified after examination by those most qualified
to provide an explanation.
Inflation Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation

Deardorff, Haisch, Maccabee and Puthoff,  2005
This study follows up on previous arguments that (1) interstellar travel for advanced civilizations is not a priori ruled out by
physical principles and therefore may be practicable, and (2) such advanced civilisations may value the search for
knowledge from uncontaminated species more than direct, interspecies communication,thereby accounting for apparent
covertness regarding their presence.
Why Some Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers Don't See UAP.
NARCAP National Technical Specialist, Jim McClenahen, a retired air traffic control specialist, offers
an air traffic controller's perspective on a UAP report.
The COMETA Report Part 1

The COMETA Report is a unique document prepared by a group of current and former French
military officers, government officials and defense specialists to address the issue of unidentified
aerial phenomena including UFO.

While NARCAP refers the reader to the authors with respect to the overall motives and conclusions of
the report, this document is particularly relevent to the NARCAP mission with respect to the emphasis
on aviation reports involving aviation related encounters with unidentified phenomena. The reader is
encouraged to pay particular attention to the aviation related data and statistics, much of it compiled
through the efforts of  NARCAP Advisor Dominique Weinstein and CNES-SEPRA Director JJ Valesco.
Science in Default: Twenty Two Years of Inadequate UFO Investigations
James E. McDonald, Ph.D. Professor of Atmospheric Science, University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona,
134th meeting of The American Society for the December 1969
Why Don't Pilots See UFOs?
Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, presented to the House Subcommittee on Science and Aeronautics, 1968
Symposium on UFOs.
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Statement on UFOs
AIAA UFO Subcommittee, Astronautics and Aeronautics, December 1968, p. 12
Incommensurability, Orthodoxy and the Physics of High Strangeness: A 6-layer Model for
Anomalous Phenomena
Dr. Jacques Vallee and Eric Davis
The current SETI paradigm and its “assumption of mediocrity” place restrictions on forms of non-human intelligence that
may be researched. A similar bias exists in the ufologists’ often-stated hypothesis that UAP, if real, must represent space
visitors. Observing that both models are biased by anthropomorphism, the authors attempt to clarify the issues surrounding
“high strangeness” observations by distinguishing six layers of information that can be derived from UAP events, namely
(1) physical manifestations, (2) anti-physical effects, (3) psychological factors, (4) physiological factors, (5) psychic effects
and (6) cultural effects. In a further step they propose a framework for scientific analysis of unidentified aerial phenomena
that takes into account the incommensurability problem.